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Le laboratoire - Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer
Unité Mixte de Recherche 7093 – CNRS/UPMC

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Effectifs du LOV - Juin 2014 (87)
  • Personnel statutaire (56)

- 34 Chercheurs et Enseignants Chercheurs

- 22 personnels techniques et administratifs

  • Personnel non statutaire (31)

- 9 Post-doc

- 8 CDD

- 14 Doctorants

Projets équipe "Biodiversité et Biogéochimie"

Projets scientifiques des membres du laboratoire de l'équipe Biodiversité et Biogéochimie (14)


AncesStram (du 01/10/2015 au 30/09/2020)

Inferring the characteristics of ANCEStral STRAMenopiles to understand their evolution and ecology

Description :

Stramenopiles (also known as heterokonts) are a major eukaryotic phylum with an amazing diversity of forms and lifestyles. They are most often unicellular, such as diatoms and many heterotrophic flagellates, but also multicellular, like the brown algae. They can be free-living or parasitic, photosynthetic or heterotrophic and are found in all common environments. They have been especially successful in marine habitats as key players in the food web as primary producers (e.g., diatoms) and predators of bacteria. Recently, many new stramenopile lineages have been found among the most abundant species in marine plankton, which have collectively been called MAST (MArine STtramenopiles). Other species are important parasites of animals and plants (e.g., Blastocystis and oomycetes) and represent significant medical and economic threats. However, despite their ecological and societal importance, little is known about the genomics of most contemporary stramenopile lineages and about the early evolution and the characteristics of ancestral stramenopiles that could explain their adaptations and their current huge diversity and ecological success. We will address these questions using two complementary approaches: 1) Sequencing genomes and transcriptomes of 20 species of diverse basal-branching stramenopiles to infer the gene content and genome traits of stramenopile ancestors by comparative genomics and phylogenomics; 2) surveying marine species in the bay of Villefranche at various depths along 2 years with microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular methods (massive 18S rRNA gene sequencing and metatranscriptomics using the new genome data as a reference), in combination with plankton manipulation experiments to identify biotic (e.g., predation) and abiotic (e.g., temperature) parameters that influence the size and composition of marine stramenopile populations. ANCESSTRAM will produce various types of deliverables, the most important ones including 1) isolation of new MAST species; 2) complete genome and transcriptome sequences of 20 stramenopiles (new isolates and culture collection species); 3) characterization of the diversity and dynamics of stramenopile populations in surface and aphotic regions of the bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer during a complete 2-years survey; 4) whole community mRNA sequences (metatranscriptomes) of surface and deep plankton samples of Villefranche and identification of stramenopile genes expressed at different depths; 5) qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of stramenopiles and the composition of the microbial plankton community in Villefranche; 6) a highly resolved stramenopile phylogeny based on hundreds of conserved markers; 7) identification of the gene content in ancestral nodes of the stramenopile phylogeny, including the ancestors of key groups (e.g., the photosynthetic clades or the parasitic Blastocystis and oomycetes clades); and 8) identification of genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer from different donors (e.g., bacteria) that may have been involved in relevant specific adaptations (such as plant and animal parasitism or photosynthesis). We will thus produce significant new knowledge on these very diverse and ecologically important organisms and will help to better understand the evolutionary history of stramenopile groups that impact human activities, including human (Blastocystis) and plant (oomycetes) parasites, and the origin of the genes that differentiate them from free-living species, which may become interesting applied targets to fight them more efficiently. The new genome and transcriptome sequences will reveal clues to explain the extraordinary phenotypic plasticity of this group and its wide spectrum of forms and lifestyles. Finally, the ecological and metatranscriptomic studies will serve to identify the set of genes expressed under different environmental constraints and give clues to understand their remarkable ecological success in marine environments.

Coordinateur : David MOREIRA

Responsable local : John,R DOLAN (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Maria-Cristina CIOBANU, Marie-Emmanuelle KERROS, Sophie MARRO, Markus,G WEINBAUER

Financement : ANR Défi de tous les savoirs

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AWIPEV-CO2 (du 01/01/2015 au 31/12/2018)

Monitoring of the carbonate chemistry at the AWIPEV underwater observatory

Description :

The AWIPEV-CO2 project aims to establish time-series measurements of the carbonate chemistry at NyÅlesund. It would be the first time-series of this kind in the coastal Arctic. These data are needed to estimate the rate at which the coastal Arctic acidifies and to plan new perturbation experiments following the first ones carried out as part of AWIPEV in 2009 and 2010. It is proposed to add two instruments to the already existing AWIPEV Underwater Observatory to measure the partial pressure of CO2 (continuously) as well as total alkalinity (once a day). Additionally, discrete sea water samples will be collected weekly for measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity. This will be used to calibrate and validate the sensor data.

Coordinateur : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO

Responsable local : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Samir ALLIOUANE

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BASEMAN (du 01/10/2015 au 30/09/2019)

Defining the baselines and standards for microplastics analyses in European waters

Description :

Since the middle of last century rapidly increasing global production of plastics has been accompanied by an accumulation of plastic litter in the marine environment. Dispersal by currents and winds does not diminish the persistence of plastic items which degrade and become fragmented over time. Together with micro-sized primary plastic litter from consumer products these degraded secondary micro-fragments lead to an increasing amount of small plastic particles (< 5 mm), so called “microplastics” (MP). The ubiquitous presence and massive accumulation of MP in marine habitats and the uptake of MP by various marine biota is now well recognized by scientists and authorities worldwide. Although awareness of the potential risks is emerging, the impact of plastic particles on aquatic ecosystems is far from understood. A fundamental issue precluding assessment of the environmental risks arising from MP is the lack of standard operation protocols (SOP) for MP sampling and detection. Consequently there is a lack of reliable data on concentrations of MP and the composition of polymers within the marine environment. Comparability of data on MP concentrations is currently hampered by a huge variety of different methods, each generating data of extremely different quality and resolution. Although MPs are recognized as an emerging contaminant in the environment, currently neither sampling, extraction, purification nor identification approaches are standardised, making the increasing numbers of MP studies hardly -if at all- comparable. BASEMAN is an interdisciplinary and international collaborative research project that aims to overcome this problem, and address the JPI-Oceans pilot call “Ecological aspects of MP in the marine environment”. BASEMAN teams experienced MP scientists (from different disciplines and countries) to undertake a profound and detailed comparison and evaluation of all approaches from sampling to identification of MP. BASEMAN deploys cutting-edge approaches to tackle the two major themes of the call: 1) “The validation and harmonisation of analytical methods” which is indispensable for 2), the “Identification and quantification of MP”. BASEMAN’s project outcomes will equip EU authorities with the tools and operational measures required to describe the abundance and distribution of MP in the environment. Such tools will permit evaluation of member state compliance with existing and future monitoring requirements.

Coordinateur : Gunnar GERDTS

Responsable local : Maria-Luiza PEDROTTI (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Gabriel GORSKY, Marie-Emmanuelle KERROS, Fabien LOMBARD

Financement : ANR JPI-OCEANS

URL : Lien externe

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CoCliMe (du 01/09/2017 au 31/08/2021)

Co-development of Climate services for adaptation to changing Marine Ecosystems

Description :

The CoCliME project will co-develop and co-produce bespoke, proof-of-concepts or prototype marine ecosystem climate services and a transferable framework for climate services development, to support informed decision making relevant to climate change-related ecological and socio-economic impacts across different coastal regions. To achieve these objectives the newly established CoCliME consortium brings together a transdisciplinary team of natural and social scientists, decision makers, and users of climate services that will dynamically interact to identify common and priority climate change-related vulnerabilities and solutions in six European coastal areas (Atlantic, Baltic, Black, Mediterranean, North and Norwegian Seas case studies). In these areas, CoCliME will focus on coastal ecosystem status indicators (e.g. harmful algal blooms, marine biotoxins and pathogens, marine microbial biodiversity) that can be markedly influenced by climate change and have direct impacts on human health (food-borne poisoning and water-quality related health disorders), economic prosperity (fisheries, aquaculture, tourism) and social wellbeing (recreation). From the very start a co-production and co-development approach to climate services will identify the information and knowledge needs of decision makers and users, and facilitate and accelerate local, national and European decision making concerning adaptation to climate change impacts. This marine ecosystem climate service framework will feed into mechanisms such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Marine Spatial Planning, national monitoring and reporting requirements, and climate adaptation planning to ensure the protection and sustainable use of Europe´s marine and coastal ecosystems for future generations.

Coordinateur : Eleanor O'ROURKE

Responsable local : Rodolphe LEMéE (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Fabrizio D'ORTENZIO, Stéphane GASPARINI, Jean-Olivier IRISSON, Sophie MARRO

Financement : CE - ERA4CS

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CONVOST (dates à venir ...)

Etat de conservation de la végétation marine et risque Ostreopsis

Description :

Les forêts marines de grandes algues brunes forment l’un des écosystèmes les plus productif et diversifié de la Méditerranée. Les activités anthropiques, telles que l’urbanisation de la côte et la surpêche, provoquent des changements abrupts (Regime shifts) dans la végétation marine, caractérisés par la perte des forêts marines et leur substitution par des communautés gazonnantes (gazons à Corallinales ou à algues filamenteuses) ou désertifiées (déserts de surpâturages à oursins). Dans ces états gazonnants et désertifiés de la végétation côtière, la diversité et la productivité sont moindres et plusieurs fonctions et services écosystémiques ne sont plus garantis. Cependant les mécanismes qui aboutissent à ces changements abrupts ainsi que la distribution des forêts, gazons et déserts marins et les conséquences au niveau écosystémique sont encore mal connus. Des études récentes ont permis de mettre en évidence que les phénomènes émergeants tels que la prolifération de micoralgues benthiques nuisibles (Ostreopsis) seraient plus fréquents et intenses dans les gazons que dans les forêts marines et pourraient donc être liés à la disparition récente des forêts de Cystoseires due aux activités anthropiques. Les proliférations d’Ostreopsis présentent un risque avéré, non seulement pour la santé des écosystèmes (car elles engendrent des mortalités massives d’organismes marins), mais surtout pour la santé publique (plusieurs cas d’intoxications collectives ont été rapportés autour de la Méditerranée depuis les années 1990). Il est donc important de mieux connaitre l’état de conservation de la végétation marine, en particulier près des zones urbaines très fréquentées, pour en déduire le risque associé d’efflorescences de microalgues nuisibles. Le projet CONVOST « Etat de conservation de la végétation marine et risque Ostreopsis » vise donc à produire une recherche d’excellence sur la compréhension des effets des impacts humains sur la végétation côtière, son état de conservation et les conséquences des Regime shifts. Sur le court terme il se propose de répondre au double objectif de : 1) mettre en place un protocole d’observation et de quantification de l’état de conservation de la végétation côtière et en particuliers des forêts, gazons et déserts marins ; 2) vérifier la faisabilité de la production de cartes de risque de proliférations d’Ostreopsis, sur la base de la modélisation de la distribution des communautés, couplée aux caractéristiques environnementales et climatiques. Sur le moyen‐long terme (objectif à 5 ans), il vise à ancrer cette recherche en structurant une plateforme d’observation des communautés benthiques et validant les relations entre les changements dans la végétation côtière et les efflorescences d’Ostreopsis d’abord à l’échelle locale (Sites Natura 2000), puis à l’échelle nationale (en passant par l’Agence de la biodiversité et les réseaux d’observation existants, tels que SOMLIT et Resomar, avec l’appui éventuel du réseau des Université Marines) et enfin à l’échelle globale, par une collaboration naissante avec la station Marine de l’Université d’Auckland, en Nouvelle Zélande (sujet de thèse en cotutelle déposé, projet bilatéral qui sera potentiellement soumis dans les prochains mois). Le réseau pourrait être étendu à d’autres pays concernés par le même phénomène (Etats Unis, Brésil, Japon).

Coordinateur : Luisa MANGIALAJO

Responsable local : Luisa MANGIALAJO (Equipe B & B)

Personnes impliquées : Rodolphe LEMéE

Financement : UCA DJEDI

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DTA (du 01/12/2017 au 31/12/2018)

Dinoflagellés Toxiques Antilles

Description :

L'objectif est d’analyser la chair de plusieurs organismes marins comestibles prélevés dans les Antilles françaises afin de rechercher (analyses toxicologiques et chimiques) la présence des phycotoxines des genres Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis et Prorocentrum. Un focus sera effectué sur les phycotoxines en relation avec la ciguatéra. Le choix des organismes cibles sera effectué en concertation étroite avec les responsables locaux de la santé publique (ARS) et de l’environnement marin (DM). Il est évident que nos partenaires locaux sont fortement intéressés par les analyses de chair de poissons comestibles (carangues, barracudas, murènes, poissons Lion), mais nous souhaitons également tester d’autres hypothèses : selon nos premières analyses, d’autres organismes marins pourraient être des vecteurs directs de ciguatéra, ou plus simplement des maillons des réseaux trophiques permettant le transfert et l’accumulation des phycotoxines vers les échelons supérieures. Il s’agit des échinodermes (oursins) et les mollusques (gastéropodes), qui broutent directement les macroalgues sur lesquelles se développe les dinoflagellés toxiques. Ces organismes peuvent être directement consommés : il est connue que les martiniquais apprécient les gonades d’oursins et que les Lambis (Lobatus gigas, détritivore à tendance herbivore) sont souvent consommés dans plusieurs îles. Il est impératif d’analyser ces organismes. Enfin, depuis nos études en relation avec Ostreopsis (Guidi-Guilvard et al., 2012) et des expérimentations réalisées in vitro en 2014 avec des copépodes, nous avons la certitude que des organismes de la méiofaune des macroalgues peuvent consommer des dinoflagellés toxiques.

Coordinateur : Rodolphe LEMéE

Responsable local : Rodolphe LEMéE (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Aurélie BOISNOIR, Sophie MARRO

Financement : INSU - EC2CO

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HighCO2Seas (du 05/12/2016 au 30/09/2019)

Assessing the Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biodiversity and Species Adaptation

Description :

Studies of OA impacts to date have been conducted primarily in the laboratory, thereby preventing assessments of how whole ecosystems comprised of multiple, interacting species will be affected. Naturally acidified systems can provide novel and critical insights into the emergent effects of OA on entire ecosystems, not just single species. Studies using the shallow volcanic CO2 vents near Castello Aragonese on the island of Ischia (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), the first CO2vent system studied in the world, have generated key insights on the direct and indirect effects of OA on the surrounding ecosystems. These natural CO2 vents cause local acidification of seawater by as much as 1.5 pH units below the average ocean pH (on total scale pHT) of 8.1-8.2. Corresponding to this pH drop, the diversity and biomass of benthic organisms decrease. Here, we propose to study newly discovered vents along the coast of Ischia across depths of 3 to 48 m. These sites span a variety of different habitats (e.g. Posidonia oceanica meadows, a cave, coralligenous outcrops), which are hotspots of Mediterranean marine biodiversity, but it is unknown how they will be affected by OA. Thus, these new vents place Ischia at the forefront of natural laboratories for OA studies, allowing us to investigate and report how a suite of ecosystem types responds to acidification.

Coordinateur : Nuria TEIXIDO

Responsable local : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Samir ALLIOUANE, Frédéric GAZEAU

Financement : Fondation TOTAL

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INTAROS (du 01/12/2016 au 30/11/2021)

Integrated Arctic observation system

Description :

The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fisheries), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.

Coordinateur : Kjetil LYGRE

Responsable local : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Samir ALLIOUANE

Financement : CE-H2020

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INTOCC (du 01/11/2015 au 31/10/2019)

Innovative Tracers of the Cenozoic Carbon Cycle

Description :

L'enregistrement isotopique marin témoigne de l'interaction complexe des processus géodynamiques qui contrôlent les teneurs en CO2 de l'atmosphère. Nous développons trois traceurs novateurs, le 40Ca, le 186Os et le δ7Li, pour étudier cet enregistrement. A l'encontre du 87Sr et de l'187Os, qui suggèrent une augmentation des apports continentaux à l'océan depuis ~40 Ma, les premiers résultats du 40Ca et de l'186Os montrent des compositions identiques aux valeurs du manteau, ce que nous essaierons de confirmer. Pour d7Li, les valeurs obtenues à partir de l'analyse de foraminifères augmentent vers la fin du Cénozoïque. Mais cet enregistrement pourrait être biaisé par des effets vitaux. Pour le confirmer, nous analyserons des smectites authigènes pour reconstruire la courbe isotopique de Li de l'eau de mer. Tous ces résultats, ainsi que les données des traceurs traditionnels, seront intégrés dans un modèle des liens entre le cycle de carbone et les processus tectoniques à l'échelle globale.

Coordinateur : Laurie REISBERG

Responsable local : Nathalie VIGIER (Equipe B & B)

Financement : ANR Défi de tous les savoirs

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MarineEmbryoTox (du 31/12/2014 au 30/12/2019)

Transgenic marine embryos as sentinels detecting CMR toxicity in the sea

Description :

La Méditerranée est un site idéal pour surveiller la pollution marine d’origine anthropogénique. Dans ce projet nous avons choisi l’ascidie comme modèle animal idéal pour surveiller la pollution marine. Parmi tous les invertébrés, l’ascidie est le plus proche de l'homme (pour optimiser le transfert des résultats aux humains). Chaque ascidie peut générer jusqu'à 1 million de larves nageantes 12 heures après la fécondation ce qui permet de réaliser des expériences de « screen » à grande échelle. Enfin, au cours des deux dernières décennies, nous avons développé des outils et des solutions génomiques/moléculaires et d’imagerie pour l'ascidie Phallusia mammillata, choisie parce que ses oeufs et embryons sont totalement transparents. Nous sommes maintenant en mesure d'exploiter pleinement le modèle Phallusia pour nous attaquer au problème de la pollution marine par les populations humaines

Coordinateur : Rémy DUMOLLARD

Responsable local : Thierry BLASCO (Equipe B & B)

Personnes impliquées : Aurélie DUFOUR, Christophe MIGON

Financement : ANR OH RISQUE2014

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MICROPLASTIC (du 24/07/2015 au 31/12/2021)

Pollution aux microplastiques détection, risques et remédiation à l'interface terre-mer

Description :

Identifier l’état de contamination et l’origine des microplastiques (MP) dans les réseaux fluviatiles permettrait de mieux évaluer leur devenir et leurs impacts dans les écosystèmes marins pour mieux gérer et agir contre ces déchets nuisibles à notre environnement. Un échantillonnage saisonnier des déchets MP sur 2 sites « ateliers » : la rade de Brest et la rade de Marseille sera mis en place. Il comprendra les systèmes fluvio-estuariens, des réseaux d’assainissement, des stations d’épuration et les rades, ce qui permettra de procéder à l’analyse physique qualitative et quantitative des MP par microscopie (quantité, forme, taille) et spectrométrie (type de polymère plastique) dans les échantillons d’eau, de sédiment et de biota. Les concentrations des contaminants potentiels (polluants organiques, métaux et éléments en traces) adsorbés sur les différents types de MP préalablement identifiés seront mesurées par analyse chimique. Nous proposons notamment de mesurer les concentrations en métaux lourds et terres rares des MP pour tenter de tracer leur(s) origine(s). Par la suite nous proposons de développer des outils de traçage isotopique afin d’identifier les sources des microplastiques dans l’environnement. Les plastiques sont composés de chaînes carbonées, et l’analyse de leur signature isotopique, définie par le ratio 13C/12C, par IRMS (isotope-ratio mass spectrometry) pourrait permettre de discriminer la provenance des différents types de polymères plastiques (origine industrielle et site de production). L’utilisation de modèle de dispersion appliqué au cas des MP sera initiée afin de déterminer les sources (urbaines, bassins versants, marines) et le devenir des microparticules, et polluants associés, dans l’environnement. Les risques pour le biota seront déterminés à travers i) l’échantillonnage in situ d’espèces clés de l’écosystème (larves de poissons, mollusques bivalves filtreurs) en parallèle du développement d’outils permettant la détection des MP dans les tissus ainsi que les atteintes physio-pathologiques associées ; et ii) la réalisation d’expériences de contamination par les MP et contaminants associés en laboratoire sur des espèces clés de l’écosystème et de l’alimentation humaine. Les impacts des MP seront mesurés au niveau écophysiologique (croissance, reproduction, nutrition), tissulaire (histopathologie), cellulaire (système immunitaire) et moléculaire (biomarqueurs biochimiques et moléculaires). In fine, des solutions seront proposées sur le marché sous forme de boites à outils pour les diagnostics, la capture des MP, l’aide à la décision et la gestion des déchets et l’aménagement des bassins versants aux collectivités, syndicats de bassins versant, aussi bien au niveau national qu’international. En complément une offre technologique sera validée et marketée pour un déploiement sur le marché dans un horizon de 24 mois à l’issue du projet.

Coordinateur : Guillem GRAU

Responsable local : Maria-Luiza PEDROTTI (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Thierry BLASCO, Gabriel GORSKY, Marie-Emmanuelle KERROS, Fabien LOMBARD, Lars STEMMANN

Financement : BPI - Banque Publique d'Investisements

URL : Lien externe

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OCEAN-15 (du 01/10/2015 au 30/09/2020)

Ostreopsis Chemical Ecology and Allelopathy Network

Description :

Several species of microalgae have developed a complex specialized metabolism yielding to the production of toxic compounds. When highly concentrated and quickly multiplying, these toxic microalgae are likely to induce negative environmental or toxicological effects, by forming Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). During the past decade, a toxic benthic dinoflagellate belonging to the genus Ostreopsis has bloomed repetitively along the Mediterranean coastline. The causes implied in the increasing incidence of these toxic blooms have not yet been determined even if global change has been pointed out. Indeed, due to its geographical features, the Mediterranean Sea is particularly sensitive to increasing temperatures and solar irradiance that would lead to enhanced thermal stratification and therefore to alterations in ecosystem functioning. Blooms of Ostreopsis were associated to human afflictions in Italy and France, such as fever, water rhinorrhea, pharyngeal pain, dry or mildly productive cough, headache, nausea/vomiting, and bronchoconstriction. Adverse effects on benthic communities of bivalves, gastropods and echinoderms were also observed in some cases. These deleterious effects on both the humans and ecosystem health were attributed to analogs of the potent palytoxin, namely ovatoxins (a to h) produced by Ostreopsis cf. ovata. However, the specialized metabolism of O. cf. ovata has been partially identified and other toxins involved in the toxic effects are likely to be produced by the microalga and require additional studies. Specialized metabolites are also involved in the chemical mediation between organisms and, up to now, the influence of chemical cues from O. cf. ovata on the development of several benthic organisms has never been investigated. Therefore, any answers coming from this field named chemical ecology will be of high added value. In this context, the overall objective of OCEAN-15 is to investigate the effects of climate change on the specialized metabolism of these microalgae in order to anticipate the potential modification of its toxic behavior as well as the subsequent ecological interactions that would alter marine ecosystems. This objective fits the societal challenge 1 listed in the ANR 2015 Work Program and more specifically its axis 2 through an interdisciplinary research on "health risks facing environmental changes" bringing useful knowledge to integrative policy in public health. The project OCEAN-15 is subdivided in four main tasks addressing several aspects of the chemical ecology of O. cf. ovata: (1) study of the specialized metabolism, (2) effects of global change on this metabolism, (3) ecological impacts of the metabolism; and (4) toxicological effects and mechanisms associated to the metabolites. A truly collaborative and multidisciplinary effort will help reaching the proposed objectives. In this project, we will combine some of the leading groups in France in the field of marine chemical ecology and metabolomics (ICN), phycotoxin chemistry and ecotoxicology (IFREMER), microalgal ecology (LOV) as well as human toxicology (ANSES). The capability and success of this consortium has already been demonstrated through the joint participation of the different partners to diverse research groups supported by the CNRS (GdR Phycotox, GdR MediatEC) as well as to international consortium (ISSHA, International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae). Thus, through this synergistic project, we are convinced to bring answers on the impact of global change on Ostreopsis cf. ovata specialized metabolism and thus allelopathy and toxicity. Any answers coming from this project would benefit to the society, as they will help further AAP PROGRAMME GENERIQUE EDITION 2015 OCEAN-15 SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENT 3 monitoring of HABs and protecting human health along the touristic Mediterranean coastline.

Coordinateur : Thomas OLIVIER

Responsable local : Rodolphe LEMéE (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Personnes impliquées : Stéphane GASPARINI, Laurence D GUIDI-GUILVARD, Luisa MANGIALAJO, Sophie MARRO

Financement : ANR

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OSI (démarré le 01/09/2016)

Ocean Solutions Initiative

Description :

The goal of the Ocean Solutions Initiative is to contribute to the IPCC assessment through at least one high visibility paper that will be published before the cut-off date of December 2018. The topics describing the four clusters of solutions (mitigate, protect, repair, adapt) will be reviewed to assess their relevance; i.e. their potential efficiency, their feasibility in terms of implementation and the associated scientific controversies. The assessment will comprise, for each solution: Description: objectives, methods, key components, possible controversies Efficiency to mitigate climate change-related drivers, reduce the impacts on the ocean, and support societies adaptation to ocean changes Desirability, taking into account drawbacks Scalability in time and space Potential for implementation (barriers and leverages) Economic cost This assessment will focus on the global scale, although some solutions can be locally-based, in order to be able to provide a global assessment. It will also consider various timescales, from a few decades to the whole 21st century, depending on the implementation conditions and potential benefits of each solution. A final step will consist, based on this solution-by-solution and cluster-by-cluster assessment, in investigating a preliminary conclusion from The Oceans 2015 Initiative that the number and efficiency of options narrow as ocean change intensifies. The Ocean Solutions Initiative aims at bringing a clear diagnostic on this assertion in order to define the room to manoeuvre associated with various end-century climate change scenarios. A final outcome would be to contrast the leeway for action from various mitigation trajectories. This product will first feed the scientific community, notably in the context of the IPCC Special Reports on “+1.5°C” and “Ocean, Climate and Cryosphere”. It will also feed the international climate negotiation process, especially upstream the launch, in 2020, of the 5-year revision process of NDCs’ ambitions established in the Paris Agreement. This assessment will be performed by an expert group that will meet twice. The first product is expected in October 2017 at a high-level event due to take place in Monaco, with H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco.

Coordinateur : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO

Responsable local : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

URL : Lien externe

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STORISK (du 01/10/2015 au 30/09/2020)

Small islands addressing climate change: towards storylines of risk and adaptation

Description :

This 48-month project aims at developing an integrated approach to the risks induced by climate- and searelated hazards (i.e., coastal erosion, marine inundation and reef mortality) on coastal areas, in a changing climate. It deals with one of the geographical targets of the Call for Proposal, i.e. Small Islands. The team will especially investigate three French overseas territories: French Polynesia in the Central Pacific Ocean, and Reunion Island and the Éparses Islands in the South-Western Indian Ocean. In addition, secondary case studies in the Indian and Pacific oceans will help put the results into a regional to international perspective. A central approach will be the reconstruction and analysis of Chains of impacts for both specific climate events (i.e., cyclones, ENSO) and gradual environmental changes (i.e., sea level rise, ocean warming and acidification), and Trajectories of vulnerability. Applied to each case study and associated with an in-depth analysis of the most recent knowledge from both physical and human sciences, such Chains of impacts and Trajectories of vulnerability will help translate the threats from current hazards and climate change into comprehensive “storylines of risk”. This will allow advancing scientific knowledge a step forward (i.e., highlighting the trade-offs between current and future challenges), as well as engaging an empirically-based dialogue with local to national stakeholders on how to address future threats (i.e., adaptation strategies). STORISK gathers researchers from various disciplines (climatology, geosciences, ecology, environmental and human geography, socioeconomic and political sciences, law) in a single coherent approach to better capture and analyse vulnerability and adaptation pathways. Such a transdisciplinary knowledge is crucially needed on the ground to identify all the components of the system (e.g., coral reefs, sedimentary cells, risk perception, land tenure systems, etc.) and their interactions, and thus to explain why vulnerability varies from one place to another and from one event to another in a given area, and also changes over time. Small Islands will definitely be concerned with various storylines of risk that need to be emphasized. From a stakeholder perspective, such outcomes will help inform adaptation-friendly decision-making processes in the context of climate change, with two regional workshops and a national conference planned for the end of the project. Henceforth, STORISK will generate innovative transdisciplinary and practice-oriented knowledge on understudied French overseas territories. It will provide major benefits for the civil society beyond Small Islands, as its overarching objective is to clarify knowledge on the impacts of extreme events and gradual changes in the aim of feeding local to national stakeholders with both a sound understanding of what is at stake with climate change, and key guidelines to enhance robust adaptation from now on. Other induced benefits for coastal areas at large will be a balanced understanding of the climate-related uncertainty issue, a didactic explanation of the processes going from hazards to impacts and vulnerability, and the highlighting of the most promising ways to enhance adaptation to climate change.

Coordinateur : Virginie DUVAT

Responsable local : Jean-Pierre GATTUSO (Equipe B & B, Equipe LOVME)

Financement : ANR Appel à Projets Génériques

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LOV - 2014